The Gurmat Sangeet Project
Dedicated to the Preservation & Propagation of Gurmat Sangeet
   
 

 
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Launching :

The Khalsa Theater Company

High Quality Theater rooted in Sikh History

Watch our Productions :

Akho Phabhi Khano Nu
&
A sneak preview of our new production Sarkar

We need your support; Please Contribute Generously

(please note that we ask for your support only when we need funds for specific projects or endeavors

Watch this space for further details

    
 
 
 
 
 
 

Rare Recordings : More kirtan by Bhai Shamsher Singh Zakhmi, Bhai Mohanpal Singh, Bhai Akal Singh and Bhai Nihal Singh

 
2013 Gurmat Sangeet Darbar in Toronto, July 13 & 14
 
 
This weekend in Toronto, we will be honoring two stalwarts fromt he world of Gurmat Sangeet, Bhai Sahib Beant Singh Bijli Ji and Bhai Sahib Partap Singh Ji. Also in attendence will be Bhai Narinder Singh Banaraswale, Huzoori Ragi at the Sri Harmandir Sahib and numerous other kirtaniye.
 

 

Paap Ji Janj Lai Kaabalo Dhaya : A reflection on 1984

  Rare Recordings : Two Asa Di Var recordings by the legendary Bhai Sahib Santa Singh Ji
  Rare Recordings : Several shabads by the late Bhai Kalyan Singh Ji, courtsey Bhai Harbans Singh Suraj (UK)
  Rare Recordings : Two shabads by the late Professor Harchand Singh Kalsi Ji, former Huzuri Ragi at Sri Harmandir Sahib and Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib, a Grade A artist at All India Radio and a shagird of Krishna Rao Shankar Pandit Ji of the Gwalior Khayal Gharana.
 

 

Gundecha Bandhu at the Gurbani Sangeet Samagam on April 5 2013 at the Talkatora Stadium
(Photograph & recordings contributed by S. Kanwaljit Singh)

 

Opportunity for Seva

We need to order two high quality Harmoniums for use in the programs that The Gurmat Sangeet Project Organizes. The cost including shipping will be roughly $1000. Please support our efforts by contributing generously.

   

Contributions : $525.....................................................................Goal : $1000

One time Seva for Harmoniums
 

 

Our young kirtaniye at the 2013 Refugee Immigration Ministry Interfaith Concert on March 8 2013

 

Dr. George Ruckert, a very senior shagird of the late Khansahib Ali Akbar Khan, accompanied by Aditya Kalyanpur and Gretchen Hayden performing at a Kirtan Diwan featuring the late Gyani Dyal Singh Ji on July 1 2006 in Hoplinton MA. (Click Photograph for recordings)

 
 

Bhavandeep Singh Zakhmi, Jasdeep Singh Zakhmi and Bhai Harmohan Singh Zakhmi at the 2013 Basant Darbar at the Santa Ana Gurdwara
(click for reordings)

 

Shabad Kirtan at the First Parish Unitarian Universalist Church of Arlington (January 6, 2013)

 

First Night Celebrations at the Millis Gurdwara Sahib (December 31 2012)

 
 

Bhai Sahib Partap Singh Ji, Bhai Davinder Pratap Singh, Bhai Mohinder Partap Singh and Bhai Ravinder Partap Singh at the Milford (Boston) Gurdwara (October 28,2012)

 

Mata Davinder Kaur Ji, The Late Gyani Dyal Singh Ji's wife, and mother to innumerable students at the Rakab Ganj Kirtan Vidyalay, being honored at the Bridgewater Gurmat Sangeet Darbar (Click picture for recordings)

 
 

Gyani Dyal Singh Ji (1934 - 2012)

Last week the world of Gurmat Sangeet suffered an irreparable loss with the passing of Gyani Dyal Singh Ji, who served as the Principal of the Rakab Ganj Gurmat Vidyalay in Delhi for forty five long years. This is a short, personal tribute to a figure who willingly embraced poverty, hardship and anonymity serving the Panth with unselfishness and passion, touching the lives of many and playing a huge role on the documentation and preservation of a centuries old musical tradition.

 

Planning the 2012 Tribute to Bhai Samund Singh Ji

We are seeking a host city for a special Gurmat Sangeet Darbar in February or April 2012. We will pay tribute to Bhai Sahib Samund Singh Ji in this Darbar, which will hopefully feature Gyani Darshan Singh Sohal Ji, who was inspired by Bhai Sahib from an early age, as well as Sardar Harbhajan Singh Ji, Bhai Sahib's son and heir to his rich musical legacy.

The event will be organized over a Saturday and Sunday at the Host Gurdwara Sahib. 3 -4 Jathas of young kirtaniye will be invited as well to participate as invited guests. In addition young local kirtaniyae and Sangat members will also be encouraged to participate in the event.

Any Sangat that wishes to organize this event in their city in 2012 is invited to correspond with us by sending email to sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

 
 

Click Image for recordings form the Bridgewater NJ Gurmat Sangeet Darbar

 

The New England Sikh Study Circle Kirtani Jatha at the 2011 Refugee Immigration Ministry International Concert at First Church, Cambridge, September 21 2011

Kareena Kaur, Digraj Singh, Amneet Singh, Raunaq Singh, Harman Kaur, Kiran Kaur, Harneet Kaur, Sumeet Singh, Kirat Singh, Navi Singh, Angad Singh, Amandeep Singh (click picture for recording)

 

Leah Raczynsi, Mehr Kaur, Simran Kaur, Baljot Kaur, Sukhmanjit Kaur, Jaspreet Singh, Amandeep Singh

 

A Humble Correction

The Three Shabads put up earlier as being sung by Gian Singh Almast Ji, are actually by his student and son, the late Thakur Singh Ji, whose photograph appears below :

 

Thakur Singh Ji sings a Guldasta, a segment of the Ragmala and a shabad in Raga Darbari Kanada

Contributed by a Kirtan Premi from Malaysia who wishes to remain anonymous

Photograph contributed by S. Bhavkhandan Singh Shambu, Almast Ji's son

 

A Rare Find !!!!!

Asa Di Var by Bhai Pardhan Singh and Bhai Harbhajan Singh Ji

Recorded in the 1940s; Contributed by S.Manjit Singh Ji (NJ)

 

Another Rare Find !!!!

Live Recordings by Bhai Sahib Samund Singh Ji

Contributed by S Gurdeep Singh Sagoo (UK)

Bhai Samund Singh Ji (1968); Photograph contributed by S. Saurabhraj Singh, his grandson

 

Stringed Instruments Lessons

The Gurmat Sangeet Project is delighted to offer Stringed Instrument Lessons to students of Gurmat Sangeet. The lessons will be delivered over Skype by Rhitom Sarkar, an outstanding young instrumentalist from the Maihar Gharana (which includes the legendary Pandit Ravi Shankar and the late Ustad Ali Akbar Khan).

These lessons are available to anyone who has an interest in Gurmat Sangeet. You do not have to be a Sikh to apply. Lessons will be paid for by the Gurmat Sangeet Project. The only 'requirement' you have to meet is a willingness to participate in Gurmat Sangeet Darbars and a commitment to teach once you become a Master instrumentalist :-)

We are currently accepting applications; 4 scholarships are available. Please complete the attached form and send it back to sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

Tell you friends about this wonderful opportunity.

Click here to access the Application form.

 

The Gurmat Sangeet Project Instrument Bank

Not every talented aspiring young Kirtaniya can afford to acquire a good Taus, Dilruba, Rabab, Jori or Tanpura. If you have any of the following instuments just sitting around, donate them to the Gurmat Sangeet Project; we will loan them to deserving Kirtnaiye, until they have the ability to buy their own, at which point the instrument will be passed on to another Kirtaniya. We are seeking the following instruments :

Taus, Dilruba, Rabab, Jori, Tanpura (Male & Female), Pakhawaj

As we are a Non Profit, you can get a tax deduction equal to the value of the instrument. If you wish to make a cash contribution instead, we will be happy to buy an instrument on your behalf for the Instrument Bank. Please contact us at sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

 

Join us in Seattle at the Renton Gurdwara Sahib on March 26 & 27 for our next Gurmat Sangeet Darbar. If you need help with accomodation or wish to participate, please contact us at sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

 

bsMqu hmwrY rwm rMgu ]
sMq jnw isau sdw sMgu ]

Click Image for Recordings from the 2011 Boston Basant Darbar

 

Gyani Darshan Singh Sohal Ji, the torch bearer of the legacy of Gian Singh Almast Ji
Recordings contributed by Bhai Harbans Singh Suraj Ji and S.Harjit Singh Ji

 
 

 

 

Outstanding Violinist and Kirtaniya Available for Programs and lessons

Bhai Iqbal Hussain of Karachi Pakistan will be in the US late November 2010 onwards. He will be available to travel anywhere in North America for Kirtan Seva. He is also an outstanding violinist and would be very happy to instruct students of Stringed Instruments (Dilruba, Taus, Violin etc.)

To schedule Kirtan Seva or lessons, please comtact us at sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

 

Internships at The Gurmat Sangeet Project

The Gurmat Sangeet Project has openings for 4 interns. We have a huge backlog of Gurmat Sangeet Recordings that need to be processed before they can be made available on the site. We also have thousands of hours of Gurmat Sangeet on cassettes that needs to be digitized. If you are above 16 and would like to volunteer, please email us at sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com All work can be done remotely with a lot of flexibility; all you need is a computer and a broadband connection. Support the efforts of the Gurmat Sangeet community while doing something you love by volunteering !!

 

 

 

 
 

Professor Ranjit Singh Ji, accompanied by his students, Jasmeet Sinch Chana (Jori), Hardeep Singh Chana (Taus), Bhai Iqbal Hussain (Violin), Bhai Gurpreet Singh

The 2010 Gurmat Sangeet Darbar, Washington DC
Click Picture for Recordings

 

 

A complete redesign of the Gurmat Sangeet Project website !!

Boston, April 30 2010

Gur Fateh Ji ! The Gurmat Sangeet Project has been active for almost six years now. With the Guru's blessing we have been able to bring you many hours of the Guru's Kirtan as we have tried to promote, preserve and propogate the Gurmat Sangeet Tradition. As our content has grown, the site has become increasingly difficult to maintain and navigate. Based you your feedback, we are embarking upon a complete revamping and redesign of the site. Some of the key imperatives are : adding a search capability by Shabad, Contributor, Raga, Tala, Singer, Event, Occasion etc., presenting a link to each shabad and its translation, adding easy to use maintenance tools and so on. We have decided to engage a profesisonal Website Develoment Company to execute the re-design.

As youa re well aware, The Gurmat Sangeet Project is a non-profit that is funded completely by you. In order to complete this project we need the following Seva :

  • Funds for the re-design effort
  • Volunteer Web Systems Designer(s) who can work with us to develop a Requirements Specifications Document (This Seva is urgent and critical)
  • Volunteer Sevadars who will help migrate the content to the new Site
  • Volunteer Sevadars who will Beta Test the new site
  • Sevadars who can facilitate integration with searchable Gurbani Engines

Please email us at sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com to sign up for any of these Sevas

Please Contribute Generously to the re-design project

(We are a non-profit; your contibutions are 100% Tax Deductible)

 

Young Australian Kirtaniye the World Parliament of Religions, Dec 6 2009, Melbourne


(We offer our humble apologies to The Autralian Youth Jatha for the delay in posting these recordings)

 

The 2010 Boston Basant Darbar

Neetu Kaur Matharu accompanied by Harman Singh (Dilruba) and Rohit Mujumdar (Tabla)

 

 

 
   
 
 
   
 

On October 24 & 25, The Gurmat Sangeet Project will host the largest ever gathering of young Kirtaniye at the Milford Gurdwara Sahib in Boston. This is a wonderful opportunity to network and get plugged into the Gurmat Sangeet Community that is at the vanguard of the renaissance in traditional Kirtan.

In order for us to make arrangements for your stay in Boston, please send us email at sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com to let us know that you will be attending. It will also help us ensure that there is a kirtan slot for you on the 24th and/or the 25th.

While everyone is welcome to participate and sing, we are inviting a few special guests to the Darbar; we will keep you updated as soon as their participation is confirmed.

So far, the featured young Kirtaniye are :
      • Shradha Agrawal (Boston)
      • Shamsher Singh (Florida)
      • The Raga Ratan Jatha (Soni Kaur, Gurpreet Singh, Nihal Singh, Surtej Singh) (DC)
      • Raviraj Singh, Manraj Singh, Harman Singh, DIljot Kaur, Karanjeet Singh (Toronto)
      • Sukhraj Singh (Salt Lake City)
      • The Gurmat Sangeet Project (Boston)

 

The Gurmat Sangeet Project Jatha at First Night Celebration at the Millis Gurdwara Sahib (January 1 2009)
Avneet Kaur (Dilruba) Simranjit Singh (Dilruba) Ritu Singh (Sitar) Jagan Nath Singh (Violin) Simran Kaur (Dilruba) Shiva
Ramakrishnan (Flute) Mehr Kaur (Dilruba) Amandeep Singh (Harmonium) Amrit Kaur (Dilruba) Joti Kaur (Harmonium) Jaspreet
Singh (Tabla); not pictured : Vijayant Singh (Dilruba) Sukh Kaur(Dilruba)
(Click to hear the Shabad that Ushered in 2009 in Boston)

Mini Partal Festial on First Night 2009 !
Mehr Kaur & Amrit Kaur Singing a Guldasta
(Click for all the recordings)

 

Planning the 2011 Gurmat Sangeet Darbar

We are seeking a host city for the Sixth Annual Annual Gurmat Sangeet Darbar. This is an annual program that began in Boston in 2005; each year the event is organized in a different city. Through the Guru's grace the 2005, 2006, 2007 & 2008 Gurmat Sangeet Darbars were very successful events, during which several young, non-professional exponents of Gurmat Sangeet were provided the opporutnity for Seva in the cities of Boston ,Chicago, Toronto, Salt Lake City and Washington DC.. In addition, eminent personalities from the world of Gurmat Sangeet were honored for their Seva.

The event will be organized over a Saturday and Sunday at the Host Gurdwara Sahib. 4 - 5 non-professional Jathas will be invited to participate as invited guests. In addition one eminent personality from the world of Gurmat Sangeet will be honored. Young local Kirtaniyas and Sangat members are also encouraged to participate in the event.

Any Sangat that wishes to organize this event in their city in 2011 is invited to correspond with us by sending email to sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa !
Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh !

 

December 27 2008 : Third Batch of Recordings is here !!!!!

Click the poster for recordings from the event

Click the poster for recordings from the event

Tanti Saz come to Boston
Gurmat Sangeet Project Boston Students singing their first Shabad with Tanti Saz

The 2008 Gurmat Sangeet Darbar
March 29 / March 30 in Toronto

New Upload Feature

If you wish to upload recordings to be hosted on the Gurmat Sangeet Project website, please send email to sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com to get our ftp username and password. Please include a brief bio detailing your interest in Gurmat Sangeet with a photograph, so that we can acknowledge your contributions.

 

This website is dedicated to these seven children, whose desire to learn and the tremendous energy they poured into
the study of Gurmat Sangeet over the past four years, was the primary inspiration for the Gurmat Sangeet Project
(l-r) Vijayant Singh, Avneet Kaur, Mehr Kaur, Shagun Kaur, Simranjit Singh, Amrit Kaur and Gurleen Kaur,
offering Kirtan Seva at the New England Sikh Study Circle, Milford Gurdwara Sahib (March 2003)
Watch this space for new content :
New ! New !
Mukhvaak : Musings on Gurbani
Chu kar az hameh heelate dar guzshat, Halal ast burdan bi-shamsheer dast (May 22, 2013)
Dehra Masit Sooe Pooja O Nivaaj Ooee
Madho Kaisee Banay Tum Sange
Prab Kee Saran Sagal Bhay Laathey
Har Jan Rakey Gur Gobind
 
The GurmatSangeet Blog
"Toorks' In the House of Nanak December 27, 2013
Behosh Baash K Hangaam Naubahaar Aamadh : A meandering journey through Basant in the Gurmat Sangeet Tradition
Waho Waho Gobind Singh Appe Gur Chela (Jan18,2013)
A Sikh decides to sit out the Gurpurb celebration at the Whie House on December 7 2012 (December 6 2012)
The Namdharis and Gurmat Sangeet (November 22, 2012)
Of Bluegrass Rimpoches and Baba Nanak (November 2, 2012)
The Sage Of Rakabganj (Posted March 4 2012)
Yakk Arz Guftam Peys To Dar Gos Kun Kartar (October 1 2011)
Kou Banjaro Raam Ko Mera Tanda Ladya Jaye Ray (September 23 2011)
New Content
Mohan Singh
Bhai Pirthipal Singh Mohanpal Singh Ji
Sajan Teri Charan Kee in Raga Ahir Bhairav by Bhai Sarbjit Singh Rangila
Seven new shabads added to the Bhai Didar Singh Ji Page(3/12/12)
(contributed by S Tarlochan Singh Bimbra)
5 New Shabads Added to the Rare Recordings Page (Oct 29 2012)
2012 Boston Basant Darbar
Asa Di Var by Bhai Samund Singh Ji (10/3/11) (contributed by S. Surinder Singh LA)
A Rare Treasure !! Asa Di Var by Bhai Didar Singh Ji (10/2/11) (contributed by S. Nachhatar Singh Sahota)
Asa Di Var by Bhai Sudh Singh Pardhan Singh Ji (9/30/2011) Contributed by Arundeep Singh
A Rare Treasure !! Shabads by Bhai Didar Singh Ji (9/23/11)
(contributed by a Kirtan Premi from Malaysia)

 

Gurmat Sangeet Darbar Seattle 2011
Gurmat Sangeet Darbar Atlanta Oct 2010

Bhai Shamsher Singh Zakhmi Bhai Mohanpal Singh, NYC in 1983
(S. Nachhattar S Sahota's collection)
(7 hrs of kirtan added on10/11/10)

Recordings from a 1977 Rain Sabai in London on the Prakash Purab of Sri Guru Ramdas Sahib; featuring Bhai Sahib Beant Singh Bijli, Bhai Gurdial Singh Rasia and others
If you have any photographs of these Ragis, please send them to us at : sevadars@gurmatsangeetproject.com

Articles by S. Harjap S Aujla

Bhai Samund Singh
Bhai Didar Singh
Bhai Santa Singh
Bhai Dharm Singh Zakhmi
Bhai Pirthipal Singh Mohanpal Singh
Bhai Avtar Singh Gurcharan Singh

We are seeking recordings by :

Hemkunt Foundation Regional Kirtan competition at Bridgewater, NJ (Added 4/11/09)
 
2009 Boston Basant Gurmat Sangeet Darbar
 

New !!! February 11 2009

Stockton Gurmat Sangeet Darbar; Complete Recordings are up !!!!

 
 

Bhai Devinder Singh Gulbagh Singh in Boston
Updated December 4 2008

 

The Gurmat Sangeet Project receives Tax Exempt Status, effective June 1 2004

Please watch this space for information about a critical Panthic project relating to Gurmat Sangeet

 

Interested in starting a Gurmat Sangeet Project Chapter for the benfit of your local Sangat ?

Please contact us !!!

 
 

Bhai Kultar Singh

Boston 2008
more recordings added July 1

Rare Recordings


Bhai Balbir Singh Ji (Live Recordings)

Added 5/4/2008
Contributed by S. Amardeep Singh

Gurmat Sangeet Darbar E Basant 2008 Recordings

Added 3/17/08

Video Recording

Bhai Sajjan Singh Ji singing a dhrupad in Raga Basant at the 2008 Gurmat Sangeet Darbar E Basant at Boston

Added 3/16/08

Rare Recordings

Video of Bhai Sahib Shamsher Singh Ji Zakhmi, singing Ghol Ghumai Lalna in Raga Basant (Purvi)

Added 3/16/08
Contributed by S. Baljit Singh (UK) who is from Bhai Sahib Ji's family

Rare Recordings
Southall, England 1975

Bhai Avtar Singh Ji & Bhai Gurcharan Singh Ji singing a fabulous Guldasta in 17 Ragas to commemorate the 300th Shahidi Gurpurb of Sri Gur Tegh Bahadur Sahib

Added 2/28/2008
Contributed by S. Devinderjit SIngh

Gurmat Sangeet Darbar 2007 Recordings Added 1/1/08
Bhai Devinder Singh Shant Added 12/30/07
Rare Recordings; Bhai Bakshish Singh Ji; large archive added 12/25/07
Additional recordings by Bhai Gurmej Singh Ji Added 12/24/07
New recordings by Bhai Rai Singh Added 11/17/07
Rare Recordings; Bhai Shamsher Singh Zakhmi Ji, Bhai Mohanpal Singh Ji; 16 new shabads added, September 2 2007
Heritage Recordings; Raga Bhupali Added September 1, 2007
 
Bhai Narinder Singh Banaraswale (5/12/07)
 

Rare Recordings

Bhai Dharm Singh Zakhmi; 14 shabads added (2/3/07)

Bhai Gurbachan Singh Gareeb recorded in 1984 (1/27/07)

 
 
Gurmat Sangeet Study Guide : Advanced Syllabus; 5 new shabads; Added 1/22/07
New Years Eve Kirtan Darbar at the Millis Gurdwara Sahib Added 1/6/2007
 
Gurmat Sangeet Darbar E Malhar, Boston ; added 9/30/06
2006 Gurmat Sangeet Darbar in Chicago; added 9/21/06
Bhai Kanwarpal Singh (New shabads) Added 9/17/06

More recordings by Gyani Dyal Singh Ji

new recordings (added 8/30/06)

 
'Veerji' S. Prem Singh Ji (added 5/11/06)
 
Camp Sehaij 2006 : Theme Shabad
 
 
 

 

 

 
 

New !!!!!!!!!! (10/15/05)
A RARE TREASURE !!
The Gurmat Sangeet Project is delighted to offer rare recordings by
Bhai Samund Singh Ji (courtsey S.Navjot Singh &
Prof. Paramjot Singh Ji)

Bhai Santa Singh Ji (courtsey S.Surinder Singh)

 
 
New Recordings
 
 
 
 
Test
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

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